Rhinitis

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Allergic rhinitis

As the name indicate it is the allergy of the nose. The patient becomes sensitive to specialized particles in the environment which are known as allergens. The body's immune system overreacts to these allergens and causes the secretion of several mediators in the body which leads to inflammation.

The symptoms resemble the common cold such as a runny or stuffy nose, itching in the eyes and nose, swelling of eyes, and redness of the nose. There are no microbes behind the disease rather it is simply the defect in the immune system. It may be allergic, or non-allergic but chronic allergic rhinitis is most widespread. In India, the disease is especially common, and it is spreading day by day. Almost 20-30% population of Indians are suffering from chronic allergic rhinitis.

Allergic rhinitis is the most spread respiratory infection in India. The 37.5 million population of India is affected by allergic rhinitis. It is the hypersensitivity in which the immune system synthesizes large amounts of IgE antibodies in the body. When an allergen enters the body and binds with the nasal mucosa, an IgE-mediated inflammatory response occurs.The infiltrate of mast cells, T cells, eosinophils, basophils cause the release of several mediators such as interleukins, histamine, cytokines. These mediators are causative agents of inflammation.

The main cause of rhinitis is the hypersensitivity reaction between the allergen and IgE.

  1. Oversensitive Immune System

    Sometimes our immune system, creates complications, in addition, to protect us from potential diseases. There are many autoimmune disorders such as myasthenia gravis, rheumatoid arthritis, Addison’s disease, Graves’ disease, etc. But in some cases, the Immune system is fast and oversensitive to particular substances called allergens. The body does not produce an allergic reaction in the first contact. First exposure causes the synthesis of antibodies and memory cells, but the second contact causes the allergic reaction.

  2. Triggering substances

    These substances include the particles such as pollens, spores, urine, mites, etc. upon entry of these particles allergic rhinitis is triggered. These allergens include.

    • House mites are tiny insects that are ectoparasites infecting the skin. Their dropping contains a specialized chemical which when inhaled triggers hypersensitivity.
    • Pollen and spores are reproductive structures of plants and fungi, respectively. They are present in the environment and can enter the respiratory tract through breathing.
    • Many animals have allergens in their saliva and urine e.g., cats and dogs. Most people’s when going near dogs or cats begin to show symptoms.
  3. Genetic causes

    A history of the family is also a powerful factor causing rhinitis. They have genes that stimulate the synthesis of large amounts of IgE antibodies.

Symptoms

  • Excessive sneezing
  • Nasal congestion or stuffy nose
  • Swollen nasal mucosa.
  • Teary-eyed
  • Pain in throat
  • Facial pain
  • Coughing
  • Itching in eyes and nose
  • Clear nasal secretions

How it is different from Sinusitis?

The symptoms of both diseases are the same and it is highly difficult to distinguish between sinusitis and allergic rhinitis. Sinusitis is caused by the organisms such as bacteria, viruses, or fungi. They enter the paranasal sinuses and cause excessive mucus secretion and block the sinuses.

But allergic rhinitis occurs when the body's immune system detects the airborne harmless substances as a danger and overly responds resulting in the allergic reaction. Some distinguishing symptoms are watery eyes, an itchy nose, and excessive sneezing are more associated with allergic rhinitis. Yellow or light green nasal discharge indicates sinusitis as compared to the clear nasal secretions, characteristics of allergic rhinitis.

Diagnosis and treatment

Allergic rhinitis is identified by the percutaneous skin test and allergen-specific immunoglobulins (IgE) test. But the symptoms such as runny nose, sneezing, coughing, sore throat, watery eyes, and clear nasal drainage also confirm it. Several medications such as

  • antihistamines (fexofenadine, loratadine, cetirizine, desloratadine)
  • decongestants (oxymetazoline, phenylephrine)
  • eye drops
  • nasal sprays (steroidal nasal sprays)
  • immunosuppressive drugs
  • home remedies

Bibo helps

kadha shot mix is effective to reduce colds, flu, inflammation. It is a natural product combination of 13 Ayurvedic ingredients such as black pepper, dry ginger, Indian gooseberry, etc. A bibo clear vapor patch is hand’s free inhaler. It is specially designed to clear the nasal passages internally and to help in breathing.


References

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  • Sverrild, A. K., Brejnrod, A., Pedersen, R., & Porsbjerg, C. B. (2017). Eosinophilic airway inflammation in asthmatic patients is associated with an altered airway microbiome. ournal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 140(2), 407-417. Retrieved from https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0091674916324757
  • White, C. W. (2018). Fevipiprant in the treatment of asthma. Expert opinion on investigational drugs, 199-207. Retrieved from https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/13543784.2018.1432592
  • Williams, J. W. (1993). Does this patient have sinusitis?: Diagnosing acute sinusitis by history and physical examination. Jama, 1242-1246. Retrieved from https://www.ingentaconnect.com/contentone/ben/cmc/2020/00000027/00000041/art00003
  • Workman, A. D., & Granquist, E. J. ((2018). Odontogenic sinusitis: developments in diagnosis, microbiology, and treatment. Current opinion in otolaryngology & head and neck surgery, 26(1), 27-33. Retrieved from https://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/wk/moo/2018/00000026/00000001/art00006

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